John Charnock's Toomb in Calcutta India
This building represents geometry through stacking of layers and angles. It also shows a dome on the top which is a perfect circle, so the building is based off of a circle while incorporating stacks and angles. The horizontal divisions are interupted by verticle divisins at each of the angles around the building pulling it upward despite the representation of horizontal stacking. The openings around the building are represetative of the importance of reaching high and expanding upward in the gothic cathedrals because they are narrow arches going upward. This reinforces also the done at the top of the building that also shows height and expanse toward the sky through the one point in the middle at the very top of the dome and the way it is stretched upward.
Constantia Cape town
This building is also white and has perfect symmetry down the middle unlike the other that represents radial symmetry. This building uses vertical windows to show the idea of verticality. The door in the center of the building reaches up and is made more prominent through the triangle shape above the door pointing upward to the highest point of the building. The religious figure above this is at the highest point of the building where it is reaching upward representing verticality through religion.
Both of these structures represent how ideas migrate to different places and these ideas are not copied, but built off of to make structures representing the same ideas, in this case verticality, without copying an exact structure. For example, these buildings represent verticality through aspects of a gothic cathedral: vertical windows and openings stretching upward and a higher center point, but they are built horizontally instead of vertically.
In the late seventeenth century, especially in france, "nature was seen as something to be mastered, tamed, and controlled-something having no inherent form or beauty in its own right"(Roth 425). Sir Henry Hoare's English Garden at Strourhead, Wiltshire, England is an example of how we build off of previous ideas in architecture. Unlike the structures above, this was an attempt to see nature as beauty the way it naturally is instead of creating lines of symmetry. This idea was working with the natural land and accentuating the non symmetrical aspects of it instead of forming it to be symmetrical, geometrical, or horizontally arranged in rows. This is a change from the perfectly symmetrical and horizontally stacked attempts at recreating perfection and ideas representing verticality reaching toward the sky.